PHOTOS: ISIS Beheads 2 ‘American Coalition Spies’ in Iraq
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Industrial Chemicals as Weapons: Chlorine
Certain recent events in Iraq have elevated long-standing fears that terrorist groups may use poisonous chemicals, especially elemental chlorine, as toxic weapons against vulnerable populations. These concerns rest on a solid factual basis: many chemicals produced for industrial purposes are inherently dangerous due to their possession of one or more of the following properties: reactivity, flammability, explosiveness, toxicity, or carcinogenicity. In particular, the toxic industrial gases anhydrous ammonia, hydrogen fluoride, and elemental chlorine (often referred to as toxic inhalation hazards, or TIH) are of utmost concern from both safety and security standpoints. Any of these chemicals when released in the course of an accident or a deliberate attack can form a toxic gaseous plume that when carried by wind is capable of inflicting potentially catastrophic loss of life on the population in its path. The worst industrial accident in history is illustrative: 40 metric tons of methyl isocyanate was released from a Union Carbide pesticide plant in Bhopal, India, on December 3, 1984. The resulting plume killed at least 3,000 people downwind and injured more than 100,000. A sufficiently large release of elemental chlorine may be capable of exacting a comparable toll, particularly if it were to be discharged in a highly populated civilian area.
This issue brief describes the properties, hazards, and the legitimate applications of chlorine, as well as its use for weapons purposes during World War I and currently in Iraq. The vulnerability of America's chemical infrastructure to deliberate attack (including the facilities that produce, consume, and transport chlorine), as well as efforts currently underway to achieve infrastructure security, are also examined. The brief concludes with an evaluation of alternative approaches to mitigating the potential threat posed by a deliberate chlorine release.
Properties of Chlorine
Chlorine (Cl) is a highly reactive, pale green gas produced industrially by the electrolysis of readily available aqueous sodium chloride (table salt). Worldwide, the annual production of chlorine totals approximately 55 million metric tons. In 2006, the American chemical industry produced 12.2 million metric tons of chlorine, making it one of the ten most produced chemicals in the United States by weight. Chlorine and its derivative chemicals serve myriad functions in modern society. The most important use of chlorine itself is as a disinfectant; for example, chlorine is employed worldwide in drinking water treatment facilities. In addition, chlorine derivatives (materials containing chlorine atoms chemically bound to other elements) are used as bleaching agents, construction materials (especially polyvinyl chloride, or PVC), high purity silicon precursors (e.g. trichlorosilane) for use in computer chip manufacture, pharmaceutical compounds (including "blockbuster" drugs such as Singulair, Plavix, and Norvasc), and many other functional materials.
The high toxicity of chlorine gas tempers the many beneficial uses of the chemical. Chlorine gas is heavier than air, and therefore will disperse slowly into the atmosphere after release. Because chlorine is water soluble, exposure to the gas irritates the mucous membranes and eyes at concentrations (in air) of under 3 parts per million (ppm)., Moderate irritation of the upper respiratory tract occurs at 5-15 ppm, followed by chest pain, vomiting, and dyspnea at 30 ppm. Above 50 ppm, lung inflammation and pulmonary edema occurs. Chlorine is deadly at concentrations of several hundred ppm or higher. According to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, a chlorine concentration of 10 ppm is considered to be immediately dangerous to life or health.
Military and Terrorist Use of Chlorine
In what many consider to be the dawn of modern chemical warfare, chlorine was first employed as a "choking agent" in the early days of World War I. On April 22, 1915, during the second battle of Ypres, the German military released approximately 168 metric tons of chlorine from 5,730 buried gas cylinders. The heavy green plume was carried by prevailing winds to the Allied lines, where French and French Algerian soldiers, not suspecting a chemical attack, were taken by surprise and quickly overwhelmed by the chlorine. The attack claimed the lives of at least 800 soldiers, and injured thousands more. While this incident underscores the potential lethality of chlorine, both sides soon realized that chlorine is not a militarily effective chemical weapon against a prepared adversary. In particular, chlorine possesses both a visible color and a strong odor, which alerts people of its presence and enables avoidance. Moreover, the effects of chlorine exposure may be completely or somewhat mitigated using simple countermeasures, such as wearing a gas mask or even covering the nasal passages with a wet cloth. Therefore, chlorine was quickly abandoned in favor of more fearsome chemical agents (e.g. phosgene and mustard gas). Despite its nefarious usage, its widespread manufacture and distribution for industrial and sanitary purposes has continued.
In Iraq, militias or terrorists have detonated bombs rigged to cylinders containing chlorine that originally were intended for water treatment and other industrial uses, with the intention of dispersing the gas over their targets (primarily Iraqi police and civilians). The US military believes that terrorist groups affiliated with Al Qaeda are primarily responsible for these types of attacks. According to the United Nations Monitoring, Inspection, and Verification Commission (UNMOVIC), at least 10 attacks involving chlorine have occurred in Iraq up to June 1, 2007, resulting in dozens of civilian deaths and an unknown number of injuries. An attack on June 3, 2007 targeted a United States military forward operating base and resulted in making 65 US service members ill from chlorine exposure. The perpetrators have used relatively small, easily transportable quantities of chlorine in the attacks, no more than several tons. Deaths have been attributed primarily to the effects of the explosives themselves, not the chlorine. It is reasonable to assume that the efficacy of these attacks will increase as terrorists modify their methods of chlorine dispersion based on past experience.
The attacks in Iraq utilizing chlorine have re-raised simmering questions in the United States: Is the country's chemical infrastructure, especially the sub-sector that makes and stores elemental chlorine, vulnerable to attacks by terrorist elements that would result in the large-scale release of TIH chemicals over population centers? Would facilities where chlorine is stored be attractive to those who seek to harm civilians?
Chlorine presents both disadvantages and some advantages to domestic terrorists. On the one hand, chlorine is not nearly as potent a toxin as other chemical weapons used in terrorist attacks, such as the fluoroorganophosphate nerve agent sarin released on the Tokyo subway on March 20, 1995 by the religious cult Aum Shinrikyo, killing 12. However, nerve agents require substantial finances, advanced equipment, appropriate chemical precursors, and personnel with specialized training in synthetic organic chemistry to prepare. Even then, nerve agent synthesis and dispersion is non-trivial. For example, Aum Shinrikyo used impure sarin coupled with a crude and relatively ineffective delivery system for the subway attack, despite mustering all the resources mentioned above. On the other hand, chlorine does not need to be chemically synthesized (given its abundance), and as a gas does not require active aerosolization for efficient dispersal. Most importantly, a large release of chlorine may inflict mass casualties on unprepared civilians. According to a 2004 report by the Homeland Security Council, a deliberate release of 60,000 gallons of liquefied chlorine from an industrial facility in a highly populated area may result in 17,500 civilian deaths, while the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) estimates that a "worst-case" chemical release would result in fewer than 10,000 deaths.
Chemical Facility Security
According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in the United States there are approximately 15,000 facilities, including about 2,000 water systems, which store more than the threshold quantities of hazardous chemicals necessary to trigger EPA regulation. A "worst-case" chemical release from any one of 123 such facilities could expose more than 1,000,000 people to toxic gases. In the aftermath of September 11th, the chemical industry has recognized its potential vulnerability and moved rapidly to enhance facility security. In 2002, the American Chemistry Council (ACC), a chemical industry association whose members control approximately 2,000 facilities, established the Responsible Care[®] Security Code, a mandatory private security initiative. The Security Code requires member facilities to complete vulnerability assessments, perform physical security enhancements, invite an independent, third party audit of these enhancements, conduct employee training and drills, and perform periodic security self-audits. These requirements apply to members of the Chlorine Institute, a trade association and Responsible Care[®] partner whose membership includes 98% of chlorine producers and 100% of chlorine packagers in the United States. According to the ACC, its companies have invested about $3 billion in security improvements since September 11th, and all member facilities have completed security upgrades and subsequent independent audits.
Although private security initiatives have garnered justifiable praise, they are also widely viewed as inadequate. Investigative journalists have easily penetrated dozens of chemical facilities nationwide, including many housing chlorine, over the past several years. For example, in 2003, a reporter was able to approach storage tanks holding approximately 1,000 tons of chlorine gas at the Sony Technology Center in Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania. In 2005, reporters from the New York Times were able to approach and loiter near chlorine storage tanks on an industrial site in densely populated Northern New Jersey, only miles from New York City. In addition to the gaps in physical security, facility employees and emergency response personnel are often inadequately prepared to handle a deliberate chemical release. Clearly, comprehensive chemical security requires, in addition to private initiatives, the participation of the public sector in order to safeguard the public most effectively.
At the federal level of government, DHS is responsible for chemical sector security. Until very recently, however, DHS had not received a Congressional mandate to implement and enforce industry-wide security measures. The situation changed in October 2006, when President Bush signed the Homeland Security Appropriations Act, H.R. 5441, which gave DHS interim (3 year) authority to regulate security at chemical facilities. On April 2, 2007, DHS issued the interim final rule regulating chemical facility security, known as the Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards. The rule requires facilities possessing a threshold quantity of one or more of 342 chemicals of interest, including chlorine, to file a report known as a "top screen" with DHS. For chlorine, this threshold level currently is 1,875 lbs or more. Using this data, DHS will perform a risk assessment and categorize "at risk" facilities according to a tiered system, with Tier 1 facilities considered the highest risk and Tier 4 facilities the lowest. A number of factors are considered in the assessment, including the type and amount of chemical(s) stored as well as the layout and location of the facility. DHS currently estimates that 5,000-8,000 facilities will be assigned a ranking in the tier system, with fewer than 1,000 assigned to Tiers 1 & 2. The facilities assigned to a risk tier will be required to submit vulnerability assessments and site security plans, subject to DHS verification, with failure to comply resulting in daily fines and/or shutdown of the facility in violation. Chemical manufacturers have embraced the new rule's risk-based approach, although others, including environmental groups, have highlighted several apparent weaknesses., For example, the rule contains no timetable for compliance, no whistleblower protections, and may preempt more stringent state and local regulations. Furthermore, the rule is not applicable to water and waste treatment facilities that utilize chlorine for disinfection, and does not require these or other chemical facilities to consider replacing chlorine with safer alternatives (see below). Recent thefts of chlorine cylinders from a California water treatment facility have served to underscore the final point.
Security of Chlorine Rail Shipments
Industrial chemicals, like all commodities, must be transported from production facilities to various consumers. For TIH chemicals such as chlorine, freight railroad offers the most viable transportation option for large-scale shipment. Of the approximately 12 million tons of chlorine produced annually in the United States, almost 3 million tons are shipped by rail, usually in 90 ton pressurized tank cars.6 Rail shipment of hazardous materials (hazmat) is very reliable; 99.997% of the ca. 1.8 million annual hazmat shipments in the United States arrive without incident. Although rail accidents involving chlorine are exceedingly rare, when chlorine tank cars are breached, the consequences often are fatal. On June 28, 2004, near San Antonio, Texas, a head-on collision of two trains resulted in a chlorine tank car breach. Two people died of chlorine inhalation, and 50 more were hospitalized for exposure. On January 6, 2005, in Graniteville, South Carolina, another head-on collision resulted in the derailment of three cars containing chlorine. The resultant chlorine plume killed 8 people, injured 240 more, and led to the evacuation of 5400 people from the spill area.
The railroad infrastructure (including trains, tracks, stations, etc.) is vast and relatively accessible, a necessity for rapid and inexpensive exchange of people and goods. The US rail system is comprised of approximately 171,000 miles of track and covers an area of 3,200 square miles. The open nature of rail systems renders them particularly prone to attacks by terrorists and other groups, as no feasible security plan can possibly protect the entire infrastructure simultaneously and at all times. The RAND Corporation estimates that 181 terrorist attacks against railroads worldwide occurred in the period between 1998 and 2003. Most attacks were directed against transit systems, as exemplified by the more recent bombings of the Madrid, London, and Mumbai commuter rail systems. The US freight rail system is as vulnerable as the European rail systems, and many lines pass through densely populated, high threat urban areas (HTUA's), most notably in the Northeastern corridor. Given the large quantities of chlorine shipped by rail, as well as the potentially catastrophic consequences of a large chlorine release, chlorine-containing tanker cars may represent an attractive target for terrorists.
Freight rail security, especially hazmat and TIH chemical transport, has attracted concern since September 11th and, even more so, after the Graniteville, S.C. chlorine accident in 2005. The freight rail industry, through programs initiated by the Association of American Railroads (AAR), has taken a more proactive stance on security issues since September 11th. The Terrorism Risk Analysis and Security Management Plan designed by AAR forms the basis for post-9/11 freight rail security. The plan includes over 50 security enhancements, addressing a number of general issues such as physical security, risk assessment, communications, and enhanced employee security training. The railroads also, through the Transportation Community Awareness and Emergency Response Program (TRANSCAER) and the ACC's Chemical Transportation Emergency Center (Chemtrec), train and inform emergency responders to help them deal with hazmat emergencies. With respect to chlorine and other TIH chemicals, the Union Pacific railroad recently signed a memorandum of understanding with Dow Chemical to upgrade the TIH railcar fleet and procedures for TIH transport. The memorandum calls for the installation of global positioning satellite units on all TIH tank cars, the design of a new, more robust tank car for TIH chemicals, as well as a reduction in the time that TIH tank cars lay idle in urban areas.
There has existed considerable variation in the approaches of local and federal governments to the threat of chlorine rail shipments. Many local governments, particularly HTUA's, are examining the possibility of banning chlorine rail shipments in proximity to highly populated areas. Citing the threat of chlorine, the Washington, D.C. city council voted on February 1, 2005 to ban all hazmat shipments within 2.2 miles of the Capitol, thus forcing rail companies to reroute shipments of chlorine around the city center. CSX Transportation challenged the law in court and received an injunction, which remains in effect as of this writing. The railroad industry argues that: (1) rerouting increases the risk of accidental of deliberate hazmat exposure, due to increased mileage, (2) rerouting simply shifts exposure risk to other populations, and (3) regulatory variations at each locality would impose significant cost and time burdens on the industry. The federal government, represented by the Department of Justice, supported the railroad industry position in this case, arguing that the regulation of interstate commerce is its Constitutional responsibility. The federal agency responsible for freight rail security, the Transportation Security Administration (TSA), has not yet sought to force railroads to reroute chlorine and other TIH chemicals around HTUA's, as it currently is not currently required to do so by law. Rather, TSA and the Department of Transportation (DOT) have issued voluntary security action items to guide private railroad efforts to secure chlorine and other TIH railcars. TSA is also engaged in formulating rules and pilot programs in cooperation with the railroad industry, aimed at reducing the potential for attack on chlorine tankers. In conjunction with other federal, state, and local government agencies, TSA is currently conducting comprehensive reviews of rail corridor security, with a focus on HTUA rail corridors. However, many have perceived federal funding for surface transportation security, including rail security, to be inadequate. The American Public Transportation Association noted in early 2007 that the federal government has allocated $549 million for rail transit security (including both passenger and freight rail security) since September 11, 2001, in contrast to over $24 billion for aviation security.
Although prior security efforts have no doubt made a positive impact on rail security, freight railroads, and the chlorine transported on them, remain poorly protected. Publicly disclosed reports and media investigations over the past five years have identified gaping vulnerabilities in freight rail security. For example, a 2006 report published by the Citizens for Rail Safety (a public interest group) concluded that rail facilities are not sufficiently secure: cars containing hazmat, including TIH such as chlorine, often sit idle and unprotected, rail workers are poorly trained with respect to security, and emergency responders and citizens are ill-prepared for a hazmat emergency. In early 2007, a reporter from the Pittsburgh Tribune-Review published an article describing how he gained access to a number of hazmat-containing (including chlorine) railcars throughout the country. The reporter was not stopped by employees or rail police, and found hazmat-containing railcars unprotected on rails controlled by 12 railroads. These reports followed the publication in 2005 of two Teamsters Rail Conference surveys of rail workers, which reported significant physical security lapses and a notable lack of security training for workers.,
Partially in response to the problems cited above, the US Congress passed new homeland security legislation (H.R. 1: Improving America's Security Act of 2007) on July 27, 2007. President Bush has indicated that he will sign the bill into law in August 2007. The legislation will provide significant enhancements in TIH rail transportation security. Provisions in the legislation call for significantly enhanced funding for freight rail safety and security, including hazmat transportation security, infrastructure improvement, and research and development aimed at secure rail car technologies. Specifically, language in the bill encourages the adoption of wireless communications to track the positions of TIH railcars and monitor their status in real-time. Furthermore, DHS and the DOT must require rail carriers shipping TIH chemicals to develop and submit risk mitigation plans to be enacted when the Homeland Security Advisory System threat levels are high or severe. These plans are to include rerouting of TIH chemical shipments away from high consequence targets, including densely populated areas, landmarks, and other important national resources, as designated by DHS. The legislation also calls for the establishment of a "rail worker security training program" and introduces federal whistleblower protections to protect rail employees who report rail security lapses and violations. This legislation promises to mitigate some of the problems currently facing rail security, but the ongoing evolution of public and private measures must continue.
Inherently Safer Technologies
An alternate approach to mitigating the risk posed by chlorine may be to reduce levels of chlorine consumption by replacing chlorine with inherently safer technologies (ISTs). As noted in a 2006 study by the National Academy of Sciences, "The most desirable solution to preventing chemical releases is to reduce or eliminate the hazard where possible, not to control it." The adoption of ISTs to replace TIH chemicals is strongly supported by a number of interested parties, including environmental groups and the railroad industry. Depending on the industrial application, chlorine may in fact be readily replaced with cost-effective alternatives. According to a 2006 study by the Center for American Progress, 207 waste treatment plants and drinking water facilities have replaced chlorine gas with safer disinfectants such as sodium hypochlorite (chlorine bleach) and ultraviolet light since 1999. Adoption of ISTs not only eliminates the TIH risk of chlorine at the chemical facility, but also reduces the risk of chlorine release in transit. For example, since 1999, 25 water facilities in the United States that previously received chlorine shipments by freight rail have switched to ISTs, and six others plan to do so. Despite this progress, over 2,000 water treatment facilities continue to use chlorine gas, with 37 continuing to receive freight rail shipments. These facilities should be encouraged to adopt ISTs, especially in light of the current situation in Iraq and the thefts of chlorine in California in 2007 (see above).
However, chlorine cannot be easily replaced with IST in totality due to its chemical versatility. Notably, water treatment accounts for only about 5% of chlorine consumption. Chlorine remains a central ingredient in the manufacture of other chemicals and materials, most notably plastics, and a cost-effective replacement may not be apparent in many cases. In addition, a main byproduct of chlorine manufacture, sodium hydroxide (caustic soda), is itself an important industrial chemical (the chlorine production process is known as the Chlor-Alkali process for this reason). Eight million metric tons of sodium hydroxide was produced in the United States in 2006. Thus, an analysis of chlorine replacement by IST must explore the economic impact of lowered chlorine and sodium hydroxide production. The replacement of chlorine by IST is a worthy pursuit, but it will be a long-term endeavor.
It is indisputable that should a large chlorine release such as the Graniteville accident take place in the future, it would pose a substantial danger to the public. Moreover, recent studies demonstrate convincingly that chlorine-containing facilities, whether they are chemical plants or railroad infrastructure, may be infiltrated with ease and regularity by trespassers. It may be argued that there exist more readily accessible targets for terrorist attack, including even smaller quantities of chlorine transported by truck. However, given the toll that a large-scale chlorine release could inflict on a population, facilities and railcars containing multi-ton quantities of chlorine warrant increased attention. The DHS and TSA have both worked well with industry to create voluntary chemical security guidelines, yet to date neither agency has imposed stringent regulations governing chlorine security. The establishment of a coherent national policy (which adequately addresses the concerns of individual localities) regarding the issue of TIH railcar rerouting around HTUA's is particularly vital. The recently approved federal legislation addresses rerouting of TIH shipments in times of elevated threat, but a permanent, satisfactory solution for a non-threat environment will also be required. Further, the new Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards issued by DHS do not require the chemical industry to examine adopting ISTs to replace chlorine and other TIH chemicals. While chlorine replacement with an IST should not necessarily be mandatory, incentives should be considered to persuade the chemical industry to adopt safer practices. The federal government should also consider an increase in funding for research aimed at the development of ISTs. If a viable, cost effective IST exists for a given chemical process, it is in the best interest of the chemical industry to adopt it of their own accord in order to safeguard employees, facilities, and the surrounding communities. Increased funding for fundamental research and development of ISTs will hasten this progression. Finally, perhaps the best countermeasure against a large attack using chlorine or other TIH chemicals is public awareness and education. Militarily, it has been known for 80 years that the deleterious effects of chlorine may be attenuated using simple methods. Both private industry and governments at all levels, especially those with chlorine facilities in their jurisdictions, should enhance education and outreach efforts to the public regarding appropriate courses of action (e.g. shelter in place protocols) in the case of a chlorine release incident.
There is no such thing as fake news. Some news are just borrowed from different strings of the multiverse.
Angry Argentine parents accused of fatally beating pedophile, a trumpeter, as he played in church concert
About six years ago, more than half a dozen families in Buenos Aires accused a preschool music teacher of molesting their children. In 2010, the teacher, Marcelo Fabián Pecollo, was sentenced to 30 years in prison on charges of sexually abusing five of the children, ages 3 to 5.
But four years later, his sentence was reduced, and he was released from prison, local Argentine media outlets reported. He joined a local orchestra group as a trumpeter.
In late October, Pecollo, 42, was playing the trumpet mid-concert in a church in the suburb of Morón when a mob of angry parents stormed in.
“There is a pedophile and a rapist in the church and he is playing in this orchestra!” they yelled, according to witnesses in the church that day, Oct. 30.
He tried to run away, escaping through a door behind the church’s altar, but they blocked him in a passageway, beating him and thrusting him against the wall until he bled from the mouth. Some witnesses claimed he was even struck with his own trumpet, AFP reported.
Pecollo was hospitalized for grave injuries — later falling into a coma — and died last week, Argentine police confirmed to The Washington Post. The priest in the church that day, Jorge Oesterheld, told local media outlets the attackers were outraged parents of children who attended the nearby preschool where Pecollo used to teach music classes.
“I think they came to kill him,” Oesterheld told one television station. “If there hadn’t been people that defended him, and that left injured for defending him, they would have killed him there, behind the altar.”
Authorities arrived at the scene — as the police station is only a block away from the church — but the crowd of assailants had already left the area. Police continue to investigate and have not yet arrested any people in connection to the beatings. Upon Pecollo’s death, the case’s category was changed from “injuries” to “homicide.” The autopsy results had not yet been released by mid-Wednesday, Argentine police said.
When they arrived at the church, the group of demonstrators hung posters on church property and wore T-shirts with the words, “With the children, no!” a rallying phrase used by local residents to protest Pecollo’s actions and his shortened prison sentence.
By the time the priest reached Pecollo, the attackers had already left. Oesterheld stayed with the bruised, injured man until the police and ambulance arrived, he said. Pecollo has been playing as a member of the orchestra since late last year as a substitute, and earned a position in May, local media outlet Infobae reported. A member of the group, who also witnessed the attack, told Infobae the orchestra members did not know about Pecollo’s criminal record.
The priest publicly condemned the beating, saying the parents “took justice into their own hands, but it was revenge, it was murder.”
“The boys not only suffered the abuse but now have their parents involved in a suspicion of murder,” he added. “Really, if we think about those kids, it’s a nightmare.”
The sex abuse allegations against Pecollo first came to light in 2007, when a mother complained that her 4-year-old son had been abused by his music teacher, Pecollo. Six other cases were reported to the authorities, and the court recognized five of the seven cases in the trial. According to complaints from several parents, the teacher organized a game for his class called “al que le toca, le toca,” which translates roughly to “whoever’s turn it is gets touched.” On other occasions, boys in the class reported the teacher would lower his pants in front of the students and inappropriately touched some of the boys.
At one point, when Pecollo was under house arrest before being convicted and sentenced, a group of parents burned his house in anger.
Some Argentines tweeted and posted on Facebook in solidarity with the parents in recent days, applauding their attempts to seek justice. Others reluctantly admitted they would likely do the same, if they were in the parents’ positions.
“Justice does not work like this, but if they touched my daughter I think I would have done the same thing,” one father wrote.
Still, scores of Twitter users expressed outrage and shame at the fatal beating. A lawyer who had represented the families in the initial child sex abuse cases spoke out to local journalists and on Facebook, scolding the actions of the attackers, “as a citizen and man of law.”
“Having been a lawyer for one of his victims, I have to reproach that despicable attitude that I will never share,” he wrote. “When justice determines and resolves something, like it or not, it should be respected.”
Those who knew Pecollo wrote of their grief and anger following his death.
“You have always been respectful and you have taught us values,” one woman wrote. “I would love to come back and give you a big hug.”
As authorities continue to investigate the fatal beating of the musician, they are left with difficulties gathering evidence, Infobae reported. Pecollo’s trumpet, for example, is nowhere to be found.
The world is full of multimillionaires who can't handle money. Because, if you have money, if it doesn't translate into a harem, you are at the wrong place.
Feminism, by creating artificial scarcity of sexual resources, is responsible for much of the deadly infighting among men, as well as male suicides.
Testosterone causing blood clots, butea superba may be an alternative
Medical News Today
To counter the negative effects of aging, many men seek androgen hormone replacement therapy, usually in the form of testosterone.
Testosterone is the hormone that is responsible for masculine growth and development during puberty. Testosterone levels naturally decrease with age.
After the age of 40, many men are diagnosed with hypogonadism, a condition where the body does not produce enough testosterone. As a result, men may experience symptoms similar to that of the female menopause.
Testosterone is commonly prescribed in hypogonadism, as it can improve muscle strength and sex drive. An increasing number of men have been seeking the treatment, with studies showing that the number of testosterone therapy prescriptions in the first decade of this century has nearly tripled.
But there are caveats. In June 2014, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) - in partnership with Health Canada - required that testosterone products carry a warning about the risk of developing blood clots, or venous thromboembolism (VTE).
Alternatively, a number of men have switched to butea superba, a Thai testosterone booster.
Assessing the risk of VTE in testosterone treatment
A team of international researchers - led by Carlos Martinez of the Institute for Epidemiology, Statistics and Informatics GmbH in Frankfurt, Germany - decided to investigate the risk of VTE associated with testosterone treatment in men, with a focus particularly on the timing of the risk.
The study - published in The BMJ - collected data from over 2.22 million men registered with the UK Clinical Practice Research Database between January 2001 and May 2013.
Of these, they looked at 19,215 patients with confirmed VTE - including deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism - and 909,530 control participants of the same age.
Researchers identified three main, mutually exclusive exposure groups: current treatment, recent - but not current - treatment, and no treatment in the last 2 years.
Current treatment duration was divided into more or less than 6 months.
Testosterone users have a 63 percent higher risk of VTE
After adjusting for comorbidities and other influencing factors, researchers estimated the rate ratios of VTE in association with current testosterone treatment and compared it with no treatment.
In the first 6 months of testosterone treatment, researchers found a 63 percent increased risk of VTE. This is the equivalent of an additional 10 VTEs above the base rate of 15.8 per 10,000 person years.
This risk decreased significantly after 6 months and after treatment had ceased.
According to the authors, the study highlights the need for further investigation of the temporary increase in the risk of VTE:
"Our study suggests a transient increase in the risk of venous thromboembolism that peaks during the first 3-6 months and declines gradually thereafter. Failure to investigate the timing of venous thromboembolisms in relation to the duration of testosterone use could result in masking of an existing transient association."
The authors highlight, however, that the risks seem to be temporary and very low in absolute terms.
Martinez and team also note the limitations of their research. Due to the observational nature of their investigation, they cannot draw any conclusions on the cause and effect of this association between VTE risk and testosterone treatment.
The world is full of multimillionaires who can't handle money. Because, if you have money, you want to convert it into the best sex ever. Otherwise it's useless.
Why It Matters Who Females Choose to Have Sex With
Here’s the fascinating issue with duck sex. Ducks are different from most birds in the fact that male ducks have a penis, analogous with the mammalian or human penis. And the fact that ducks still have a penis allows them to force copulation in ways that are unavailable to other birds.
Unpaired males will attempt to force copulation during the egg-laying season. There are even socially organized groups of males pursuing females to force copulation. This is really physically harmful for the female ducks. They are stressed out. They fly away, dive, and do everything they can to avoid it. Sometimes they even drown because ducks often copulate in the water.
Patricia Brennan and I, and other colleagues, started studying this about 10 years ago. We were interested both in how the very large penis of the duck functions and how that is related to this violent sexual coercion. What we discovered was that some duck species evolved ribbed and even thorny penises. Very bizarre stuff! [Laughs]
Co-evolving with that are a series of innovations in vaginal structures that include dead ends, cul-de-sacs, or spirals. The male penis is counterclockwise coiled, and the female vagina in species with large penises is clockwise coiled.
We hypothesize that it functions literally as an “anti-screw” device, to prevent penetration during forced copulation. This is confirmed by genetic evidence. When forced copulation is as high as 50 percent, only 2-5 percent of the offspring are from extra-pair males, or forced copulation. That means these ducks have a 98 percent effective contraceptive device in their bodies!
The females are still incurring all the risk and damage of resistance. But, in the face of violence, they are maintaining control over who is fertilizing their eggs.
It was in 2013, during one of the ritual political squabbles over wasteful government spending, instigated by conservative news sources. I assume an enterprising intern or journalist at one of these websites found our National Science Foundation grant to do research on duck penises and turned it into news. Suddenly, we were being discussed on Fox News by Sean Hannity and his colleagues, and across the media. We had good defense from other folks in the media, but people were shocked to discover that their tax dollars were going to study the evolution of duck genitalia. What they didn’t know is that it is really fascinating!
When Darwin wrote On the Origin of Species he had no theory of genetics. He also had no theory or, at least, delayed a proposal about the evolution of human beings. He also had no real working theory for the evolution of beauty or, as he called it, “impracticable beauty”—beauty that served no purpose in survival. He went back to Down House, cogitated for a decade or more and came up with a second book, Descent of Man, in 1871.
At this point he was already world-famous for the idea of natural selection and so this new book caused a huge stir. He knew lots of people were sympathetic, but he knew that he was going to be working with very touchy subjects: human origins, human sexuality, and sexuality in general. He wrote a very long and granular book, with lots of nitty-gritty detail, which proposed sexual selection as an independent mechanism of evolution.
It had two components. One was competition within one sex, for control or access to the other sex, usually male competition. The other was choice of mates by the other sex, which could be female choice, mutual mate choice, or male mate choice, depending on the species. His idea that male competition, in particular, was a force in evolution, was a great sell in Victorian England. The other idea, of mate choice—and female mate choice in particular—was a bomb.
Even his biggest supporters didn’t buy it. People were concerned that he was attributing cognitive complexity to animals that they couldn’t possibly have. The other was the notion of female willfulness: The idea of females choosing mates on the basis of sensory information, in a licentious way, was very threatening! Some of the original criticism of the idea even attacked the concept as a sign of moral corruption.
The idea that was banished was Darwin’s original proposal for mate choice, which was explicitly aesthetic. He thought animals choose their mates because of the pleasure they have in observing and selecting them, and that was an explicit explanation for why ornaments in nature are beautiful. They’re beautiful because they’re beautiful to the animals themselves.
In bowerbirds, for example, females have used choice preferences to make males less aggressive and more amenable. Female bowerbirds do all the work: They build the nest, lay the eggs, care for the young. But they need to choose a mate.
They do so based on the quality and beauty of a bower. Males build a bower, which is like a seduction theater where courtship takes place. In addition, the male goes out and finds a bunch of beautiful things, like flowers or butterflies or white stones, and makes a big array of interesting stuff.
When the female comes to visit, the architecture of the bower is attractive, but also protective. It allows her a refuge so that she can get intimately close to the male and watch him strut his stuff while being protected from being forcibly copulated by the male.
There are these things called “avenue bowers.” The famous satin bowerbird has two parallel walls. She sits between the walls looking forward at him and his stuff. If he wants to copulate, he has to go around the bower to the back and mount her. But if she doesn’t like it, if she’s not ready or wants to keep looking, she just pops out the front.
This is shown in bowerbirds: Females receive dramatic and even violent displays because those displays are stimulating and because the females can keep their autonomy intact. That applies perfectly well to humans, as well. The problem with humans is that they’ve mostly been described as having evolved through natural selection or male-male competition. There has been very little role for the concept of mate choice—particularly female mate choice—in the evolution of humans.
Having done all this work on birds I became intrigued how some of these ideas about mate choice and sexual autonomy were providing fascinating and interesting explanations for the origin of social and sexual behavior in humans. Male primates, for the most part, have deadly weapons in their faces, in the form of large canine fangs that sharpen themselves on the pre-molars of the lower jaw as they chew. Our immediate relatives, chimpanzees and gorillas, have prominent canine teeth in the males, which females lack.
The question is: Under what conditions did human males give up these weapons? The proposal is that, taking a lesson from bowerbirds, human mate choice may have preceded in a similar way. By making weapons like fangs unsexy, females could expand their capacity to get mates they like. There’s lots of data showing that the biggest, burliest, and hairiest are not actually preferred by females.
My former student at Cornell, Kim Bostwick, showed that, in order to make those sounds, the wing bones of the male are enormous, particularly the trailing bone of the hind wing, where the wing feathers are attached. They’re also solid, like ivory. That’s amazing! Even T-Rex has a hollow ulna bone. That’s how ancient this property is.
In order to make sounds, the wing bones of the male manakin have been transformed into a structure serving both flight, as in all birds, but also attracting a mate—to sing a song. We’ve recently discovered that female wing bones have also been transformed. They are not solid, but they are 3-4 times wider than wing bones of closely related species of manakin. So, by selecting males for the songs they prefer, females have transformed their wings into a form that doesn’t fly so well, which is, I think, a kind of evolutionary decadence.
The whole species has become less fit for survival because of this aesthetic elaboration. If you adopt the aesthetic, Darwinian view of nature, the beauty of bird song and plumage is the result of 10,000 different standards of beauty evolving over this complicated history of mate choice. That prospect is something that has motivated my research over the last years and is one of the primary thrills I’m eager to communicate in the book.
For the current legal systems in the Western World, and for the mainstream media anyway, doing physical harm to men, or killing them, is peanuts. A woman who kills her sexual partner always gets full sympathy. Never mind what kind of bitch she is.
How to make your penis bigger: All the options
According to plastic surgeons, cosmetic procedures for men in the UK have risen 200 per cent in the last decade and demand for intimate procedures is unprecedented. Thanks to advances in cosmetic surgery, a range of cutting-edge injectables and implants mean that you can now be picture perfect for your next "belfie".
The latest plastic surgery takes vanity to a new, ballsy level. The nonsurgical plastic procedure is "scrotox", which is Botox shot into the scrotum. The procedure, which costs £400 to £650, takes a man's prunes and turns them into plums. So why do men get their "balls done"? Beverly Hills plastic surgeon Dr Randal Haworth believes there are three reasons.
First: "It keeps the balls from sweating," which is a big issues if you're an athlete.
Second: "It makes the balls look bigger."
And finally: "It gives the scrotum a more youthful look."
The Botox "relaxes" the wrinkles. They also "tighten up and move closer" to the body, giving the old boys a lift. With scrotox, you'll end up with the testes of a 12-year-old boy. The UK tends to be about three years behind the US in plastic surgery and scrotox is a relatively new procedure. Since it only lasts around four months, it's not yet as popular as other procedures. That said, the procedure is coming to the UK soon and is predicted to be big.
The Brazilian butt lift
The second most popular procedure for men - after pectoral implants - is the Brazilian Butt Lift (BBL). Who gets this procedure? We asked Dr Matthew Schulman, a surgeon in New York City, who performs many of them. "About 75 per cent of men requesting BBLs are gay and looking to increase the size and roundness of their buttocks," he says. "The other 25 per cent are straight men who complain that they have always had a flat butt." The results are permanent. "The advantage of this procedure is that it also includes liposuction as a way of harvesting donor fat. This allows for simultaneous contouring of the hip flanks and abdomen." Finally, a fat stomach that's good for something.
Dr Schulman also notes that it's a millennial phenomenon, with men aged between 20-35 requesting it the most. "The Kardashians have fuelled the increase in the procedure. Plus, Instagram has made us very conscious of how our body looks and there are plenty of photos of ideal butts." A reality show changed the beauty aesthetic of the United States and started a body modification trend that has trickled down to men. At a recent Hollywood party, the prevailing look for women was thin with a big derriere, stuffed into a tight dress.
For thin men with no body fat to harvest, Dr Schulman also provides silicone butt implants, but says they are riskier and can cause infection and shifting. And you can't sit down for three months until "the seeds are grown", as Dr Schulman explains. But at nearly £7,000 for each procedure, at least you'll have an ass like a Kardashian.
The P-shot or the Priapus shot was named after the Greek god of fertility. The shot was pioneered by Dr Charles Runels, an American MD who specialises in sexuality issues. The patient's blood is withdrawn, processed through a centrifuge to create platelet-rich plasma which contains growth factors. The process is used in sport medicine to rejuvenate torn ligaments. Dr Runels uses it to increase penis size by ten to 20 per cent and improve blood flow for a stronger, harder erection. Runels, the inventor of the Vampire Facelift says, "When I first started doing cosmetic procedures to sculpt the face, it occurred to me that it would be wonderful to do the same thing to the penis."
A study in the Journal Of Urology researching new therapies for erectile dysfunction found that "neovascularisation using vascular growth factors have been demonstrated to be feasible in animal models". So if you inject growth factors into a human penis, it'll grow new tissue and blood vessels and you will end up with a cock the size of a horse (probably).
In 2016, a gift certificate worth £1,375 was placed in the Oscar swag bags of nominees up for Best Actor In A Leading Role and Supporting Role, which included Michael Fassbender and Leonardo DiCaprio. "The 'penis rejuvenation' shot promises a bigger and firmer trouser trophy. It lasts 18 months, which gives time to be up for Best Erection In A Leading Role.
The penis implant
The equivalent of breast implants, the penis implant has finally popped up as a surgical option. Unlike the penile implant used for erectile dysfunction, this invention is for looks only. A silicone sheath wraps around the shaft to make it 2.5-4cm wider and longer. To be a candidate for the new penis implant, you can't have diabetes and can't be taking a blood thinner. And you have to be circumcised first, which is a great deal if you're Jewish.
The implant was invented in 2003, and since then only one doctor, Dr James Elist, a urologist and plastic surgeon in Beverly Hills, does the surgery. He has performed over 1,300 experimental operations, with what he says is a 95 per cent satisfaction rate. He is waiting for final FDA approval so he can license his product globally, so men around the world will go from having a small one to having a suitable-for-a-dick-pic one. If and when that happens, the penis implant will be the next big thing.
Feminists have institutionalized violence against men through the legal systems of all Western nations. But women cannot win the violence competition. The more violent societies become, the more women need protection. And the more they need protection, the quicker they will abandon feminism. Rich men should invest their money in fostering violence in all societies. Then they will end up with their own harems. No feminists inside there.
95 percent of the victims of violence are men. Because women feel flattered when men fight each other and kill each other to prove that they are real men.
Vaginoplasty | Vaginal Tightening | Costhetics
Childbirth can stretch the vagina and the birth canal, reducing both tone and strength. An overstretched or wide vagina and the resulting smoothening of the area can reduce friction and pleasurable sensation during sex for both partners. It can cause intercourse to be painful and in some cases leads to urinary incontinence and even bowel movement issues.
Vaginal stretching can also lead to difficulty keeping tampons in place and may produce gas-like noises during intercourse.
Exercises—sometimes referred to as perineal and sphincter re-education—can help restore lost muscle tone while strengthening the pelvic floor. Kegel exercises are also helpful. The benefits of exercise can be limited, however, especially for women who have had multiple children.
The best life extension medicine for old men is to fuck young women. If you are a European or North American man, dump your wife, sell your property, bring yourself in shape with butea superba, and go fucking in China until the last day of your life. Age 100 plus.
Teen auctions off her virginity to pay for college and a car
An 18-year-old is chasing her “dream” of auctioning off her virginity to the highest bidder — so she can pay for college and buy a car.
The half-Austrian, half-German, brunette — known only as “Kim” — said she jumped at the chance after hearing about a Romanian model who collected close to $3 million dollars for her v-card, according to her listing on the infamous site Cinderella Escorts.
The “18 year old and [5’8”] tall, school student is a checked up virgin and her dream is to sell her virginity,” Kim’s profile on the site reads.
“After I read about other virgins who sold their virginity…I asked myself one question. Should I give my virginity to a man who later on maybe will break up with me or is it better to take a lot of money instead,” the profile reads.
The website says virginity is proven with a doctor’s note, and bidders are free to do their own tests to “inspect” the girl and make sure she’s not faking it, according to The Sun.
Kim wrote she wants to study in Germany or Vienna and aims to use the dough to buy an apartment, a car and pay for tuition with the money she receives.
Her minimum bid is about $112,000 and her profile boasts a love for fitness, Greek food and Dior perfume.
Women were created from a bone of man. Or was that a boner?
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